The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

Which country is best known for red wines made using Malbec?

What is the minimum time Non-Vintage Champagne must be aged before it is released?

Where is the name “Vinho Verde” derived from?

  • The Colour 
  • The Grape varieties to make it
  • The Taste
  • The region it is made in

What is the gas present inside all bottles of Sparkling Wine that makes it fizzy?

What are the three permitted grape varieties used to make Champagne?

    The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

    The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

    The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

    The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

    The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

    Which country does the red grape Carmenere originate from?

    • France
    • Chile
    • Australia
    • Spain

    What is the most northerly wine region in Chile?

    Which method is used to make Prosecco?

    What grape variety is Prosecco made from?

    • Pinot Grigio
    • Sauvignon Blanc
    • Glera
    • Grolleau

    What is a great food pairing with Viognier?

    Where is the wine-making region of Marlborough?

    Which country does Sauvignon Blanc originate from?

    • France
    • New Zealand
    • South Africa
    • Italy

    Which of the following is primarily responsible for giving structure to red wine?

    • Alcohol level
    • Time spent ageing
    • Cork Closure
    • Tannin

    Which of the following regions of France is best known for making Sauvignon Blanc?

    • Loire Valley
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Chablis
    • Bordeaux
    What percentage of the world’s wine does New Zealand make?
    • 1%
    • 5%
    • 10%
    • 20%

      Which of the following styles of wine is not made within the Tuscany region?

      • Barolo
      • Brunello di Montalcino
      • Chianti
      • Vernaccia di San Gimignano

      Which of the following flavour profiles best describes a wine with high (14.5% ABV or more) alcohol?

      What is the predominant grape variety in Chianti wine?

      • Cabernet Sauvignon
      • Chardonnay
      • Sangiovese
      • Nebbiolo

      Which famous wine style is made using Grenache?

      Which region of France is best known for making Rose wine?

          Which country is best known for red wines made using Malbec?

          What is the minimum time Non-Vintage Champagne must be aged before it is released?

          Where is the name “Vinho Verde” derived from?

          • The Colour 
          • The Grape varieties to make it
          • The Taste
          • The region it is made in

          What is the gas present inside all bottles of Sparkling Wine that makes it fizzy?

          What are the three permitted grape varieties used to make Champagne?

              Where is the wine-making region of Marlborough?

              Which country does Sauvignon Blanc originate from?

              • Spain
              • France
              • New Zealand
              • Italy

              Which of the following is primarily responsible for giving structure to red wine?

              Which of the following regions of France is best known for making Sauvignon Blanc?

              What percentage of the world’s wine does New Zealand make?

              • 1%
              • 5%
              • 10%
              • 20%

              The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

              The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

              The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

              The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

              The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

                The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

                The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

                The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

                The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

                The text that you are reading right now is the question ?

                  What food pairs well with Chablis Premier Cru?

                  • Thai green curry
                  • Scallops
                  • Beef Bourguignon
                  • Sticky toffee pudding

                  Which varieties are commonly blended with Tempranillo?

                  What is the method used to make Cremant de Loire?

                  Which area in Burgundy produces the most white wine?

                  • Nuit-Saint-George
                  • Mâconnais
                  • Cote d’Or
                  • Beaujolais

                  What climate influences the wines made in Rioja?

                  Grape: Cabernet
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                  Location
                  Cabernet Sauvignon originates from Bordeaux but as the world’s most famous and revered red grape, it is planted all over the world. Notable areas of quality include the Margaret River in Australia, Hawkes Bay in New Zealand and the lesser-known wine producing region, Lebanon.
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                  Climate
                  Cabernet Sauvignon can grow in all climate types (continental, maritime and Mediterranean) but it takes much longer to reach full ripeness than most other grapes, so is best suited for growing in warm areas.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Cabernet Sauvignon is a black grape variety used to make full-bodied and often powerfully structured. It offers a distinctively blackcurrant and cassis flavour but also contributes flavours of mint, black cherry, olive, cedar and cigar box. It is known for its ageing potential and is a major constituent in some of the world’s most long-lived wines.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Cabernet Sauvignon is the second-most widely planted black grape variety, with around 262,000 hectares planted worldwide. There are around 50,000 hectares of Cabernet Sauvignon in France, of which roughly 60% is in the Bordeaux region.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Being usually a powerful wine, Cabernet Sauvignon will overpower light or delicate dishes and tends to pair well with dishes high in protein or fats. Naturally therefore it makes a great partner for red meat dishes or hard cheeses such as cheddar.
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                  Region: Bordeaux
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                  Location
                  Situated at the mouth of the Garonne river in south-west France, Bordeaux has long been one of the most important winemaking regions in the world. The river divides the region into two main territories: the north-east side (‘Right Bank’) features heavy clay soils that particularly suit Merlot. This is the home of Saint-Emilion and Pomerol. The south-west side (‘Left Bank’) is made up of a higher gravel content, providing superior drainage well suited to Cabernet-Sauvignon.
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                  Climate
                  Bordeaux has a moderate maritime climate, characterised by mild winters and long, warm summers.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red (rouge) varieties –    Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet-Franc, Petit-Verdot, Malbec White (blanc) varieties - Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon & Muscadelle
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Bordeaux us one of the world’s largest wine producing regions, with an annual production of about 960 million bottles! It is most known for its reds, but many producers also make white wine, whereas the appellations of Sauternes and Barsac are renowned for the quality of their sweet wines.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Entrecote Bordelaise is a famous dish of steak cooked in a strong gravy made of shallots, wine, butter, herbs and bone marrow. Other regional specialities include duck confit, foie gras and Lamproie a la Bordelaise, lamprey cooked in red wine and its own blood.
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                  How to... make the most of your wine
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                  Grape Expectation
                  Wine is more than just liquid in a glass. How we approach wine makes a difference to how it tastes. Expectations matter.
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                  Serving Environment
                  Consider the serving situation. Is the wine at the right temperature? Ice buckets with a mixture of ice and water are the best way of chilling down wines. And don't be afraid to give reds a bit of a chill on a warm day.
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                  Airing Wine
                  Think about using a decanter. Especially for reds, decanters can help the wine taste more open. They also make drinking wine seem more like a special occasion.
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                  Presentation
                  Choose nice wine glasses: these make a difference to how wine tastes. They also elevate the experience.
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                  Sharing the experience
                  The most important thing is to drink wine in good company in a relaxed setting. It tastes so much better this way.
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                  Grape: Chardonnay
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                  Location
                  Chardonnay’s homeland is Burgundy, where it is the grape that makes Chablis and White Burgundy. However, it is grown in almost all wine regions, constituting a significant portion of white grape plantings in Australia, Chile, South Africa and California.
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                  Climate
                  Chardonnay is a dream to grow, being a very durable, hardy variety that yields well almost anywhere, and is notable for its ability to adapt to a variety of different terroirs and climates.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Chardonnay is a white grape variety, grown to produce still white wines from light- to full-bodied, with high acidity and is also a major constituent in sparkling wines such as Champagne.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Chardonnay is the second-most widely planted white grape variety with over 160,000 hectares planted worldwide. Chardonnay is planted in more wine regions than any other grape variety, including plantings in England.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  It’s relatively high acidity makes Chardonnay an excellent food partner for many foods but its ideal match very much depends on the style of Chardonnay. Unoaked, light versions (such as Chablis) go brilliantly with shellfish and delicate white fish, whereas oakier, fuller styles make a good accompaniment to white meats such as turkey, pork or roast chicken.
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                  Region: Champagne
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                  Location
                  Champagne is one of the most northerly wine growing regions in the world, located in the north-east corner of France. There are five distinct districts: Aube, Côte des Blancs, Côte de Sézanne, Montagne de Reims, and Vallée de la Marne. Many of the producers are based in either Reims or Épernay.
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                  Climate
                  This cool climate has low average temperatures, ensuring that acidity levels are high. Due to the level of rainfall at harvest time in September bunches can be susceptible to fungal infection, requiring careful selection.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red – Pinot Noir (40% of plantings), Pinot Meunier (30% White – Chardonnay (30%) Non-Vintage Champagne (a house blend of various vintages) is by far the most common style. By law this must be aged for a minimum of 12 months before release. Vintage Champagne is an expression of a particular vintage, a so differs in style from year to year. By law, this must be aged for a minimum of 36 months before release.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  If a Champagne is made from 100% Pinot Noir or 100% Pinot Meunier (rare) it is known as a ‘Blanc de Noirs’ If a Champagne is made from 100% Chardonnay it is known as a ‘Blanc de Blancs’ There are 319 Champagne producing villages. Each is graded for quality from 80% - 100%. Only those with a perfect grade qualify as ‘Grand Cru’ – just 17 of these villages.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Best described as rustic with a Flemish influence. Venison, wild boar, rabbit and beef all feature in rich pates and seasonal dishes.
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                  How to... store wine
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                  Short Term
                  Wine is quite sensitive to storage temperature, but don't worry: it is not too fragile, especially if you aren't intending to keep it for years.
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                  Temperature
                  Choose a cool spot where the temperature doesn't fluctuate too much. Temperatures over about 30 C for more than a few days can kill wines.
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                  Long Term
                  For long-term storage a temperature below 15 C is advisable. The cooler the temperature, the slower and better the wine will age. Slow seasonal movement in temperature is OK. If you haven't got a cellar, consider off-site storage options.
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                  Sideways
                  Wine should be kept on its side if it is being stored for more than a few weeks.
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                  Lightning
                  Avoid light: it can damage wine, especially direct sunlight. Light is particularly problematic for wine in clear glass bottles.
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                  Grape: Merlot
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                  Location
                  Merlot is another grape originating from Bordeaux, where it is also most famous as a blending partner for the more revered Cabernet Sauvignon. Notable areas of quality include Bordeaux, California, Chile and South Africa.
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                  Climate
                  Merlot is relatively easy to grow and can adapt to most climates, producing different styles dependant on the location where it’s grown in. It buds and ripens early, meaning it is more at risk of frost in cooler climates, but equally rarely struggles to reach optimal ripeness.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Merlot is black grape variety widely used to make a range of soft, fruity and medium-bodied red wines. Merlot makes the ideal blending partner with Cabernet Sauvignon, as its plush and smooth texture softens the more tannic Cabernet.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Merlot is just behind Cabernet Sauvignon in terms of plantings, with an estimated 260,000 hectares around the world. Despite being the junior partner in most high-end Red Bordeaux wines, Merlot is more widely planted (about 50-60% of vines) in the region than its blending partner Cabernet Sauvignon. A 2003 study of 19 red wines showed Merlot to have the highest concentration of reservatrol, an antioxidant believed to reduce the development of tumours and the spread of cancer.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Merlot goes well with a wide variety of foods, including chicken and other lighter meats, tomato-based dishes, roast duck and hearty stews such as beef bourgignon.
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                  Region: English Wine
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                  Location
                  Most of wine produced in England is made in the south of the Island where the climate is warmer. Areas of notable quality are West Sussex, Kent and Dorset. The land is green and vineyards are generally planted at low elevations.
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                  Climate
                  English wine has been helped by the warmer British summers over recent years and it is speculated that global warming may encourage major growth in the future.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  • Chardonnay is the most planted variety (21%) followed by Pinot Noir (19%) and Bacchus (9%). • Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay go into sparkling wine production. Sparkling wine accounts for 2/3 of overall production, made with the same process as Champagne, méthode champenoise, where secondary fermentation occurs in the bottle. • The English sparkling wine industry has only been around for 25 years but is now giving Champagne a run for its money. With the same climate, same grape varieties, and the same method of production it is difficult for even industry professionals to tell these products apart in quality.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Red varieties: Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir and Dornfelder White varieties: Seyval blanc, Reichensteiner, Müller-Thurgau, Chardonnay and Bacchus Chardonnay is the most planted variety (21%) followed by Pinot Noir (19%) and Bacchus (9%). Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay go into sparkling wine production. Sparkling wine accounts for 2/3 of overall production, made with the same process as Champagne, méthode champenoise, where secondary fermentation occurs in the bottle. The English sparkling wine industry has only been around for 25 years but is now giving Champagne a run for its money. With the same climate, same grape varieties, and the same method of production it is difficult for even industry professionals to tell these products apart in quality.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  The growth in viticulture in the UK has been encouraged by the local food movement, and the desire by consumers to cut the amount of food miles connected with the produce that they buy, including locally produced wine. Local, organically grown produce is growing in popularity including sustainably sourced cod, haddock and plaice which pairs perfectly with NV English Sparking wine.
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                  How to... buy wine
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                  Choose your shop
                  Generally speaking, unless you are buying very cheap wine, supermarkets are a bad place for shopping for wine.
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                  Seek advice
                  Wine can be quite expensive, so it's good to choose with care. Third-party recommendations and expert advice can be invaluable.
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                  Thoughtful selections
                  The best thing is to find a trusted wine merchant who has taken care to select their wine range carefully.
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                  Better Juice
                  Don't always search for the cheapest deal. It could be a false economy. It's worth paying a little more to support good wine merchants who offer sound advice and a good selection.
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                  Prestige
                  If you are on a budget, steer clear of the famous names and classic regions. These days great wine is made in many places: you just have to look a bit harder and leave the well beaten path.
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                  Grape: Tempranillo
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                  Location
                  Tempranillo is widely grown, most commonly in Rioja and Ribera del Duero in Spain and Portugal, where it is locally known as Tinto Roriz and goes in Port production.
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                  Climate
                  For Tempranillo be retain elegance and acidity, you need a cool climate. But to get high sugar levels and the thick skins that give deep colour you need heat. In Spain and Portugal these two opposites are best achieved in the continental climate. Spanish temprano means "early“, a reference to the fact that it ripens several weeks earlier than most Spanish red grapes.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Tempranillo is a black grape variety widely grown to make full-bodied red wines. Relatively neutral so it is often blended with other varieties, such as Grenache and Carignan, or aged for extended periods in oak where the wine easily takes on the flavour of the barrel.
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                  Intesresting Facts
                  Indigenous to Spain, Tempranillo is thought to date back to before the birth of Christ. Tempranillo is the fourth most widely planted grape variety worldwide, with around 202,000 hectares worldwide – even more astonishing considering it is mainly concentrated on the Iberian peninsula. Tempranillo has a variety of different monikers, as it is also commonly known as Tinto del Pais, Tinto del Toro, Tinta Fina in Spain and Aragonez or Tinta Roriz (Portugal).
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                  Perfect pairings
                  Tempranillo pairs with all kinds of food because it’s savoury. Regional Spanish cuisine includes roasted vegetables and cured meats.
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                  Region: Burgundy
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                  Location
                  Burgundy is a region in eastern France with Lyon to the south. The region includes Beaujolais, Chablis, Cote d’Or (Nuits-Saint-Georges & Côte de Beaune), Cote Chalonnaise and Mâconnais.
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                  Climate
                  Burgundy is mostly flat with a few gently rolling hills. Burgundy is incredibly ‘terroir’ orientated with attention paid to the location of vineyards and type of soil they are planted on. Burgundy has 400 different types of soil to choose from!
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red varieties: Pinot Noir & Gamay White varieties: Chardonnay & Aligoté
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                  Interesting Facts
                  The Cote d’Or region produces 90% red grapes almost exclusively Pinot Noir. Gamay is a thin skinned grape responsible for 99% of Beaujolais’ total production. 70% of Mâconnais wine is made from white grape varieties, including the sought after Pouilly Fuisse from Chardonnay. The best wines in Burgundy are from Grand Cru vineyards, making up 1% of total production. The Côte de Nuits contains 24 out of the 25 red Grand Cru appellations.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Burgundians are passionate about their food and wine in equal measure. Regional dishes include Boeuf Bourguignon and Coq au Vin which pair wonderfully with rustic Bourgogne rouge. Whilst Escargots à la Bourgogne (snails) pair beautifully with crisp Bourgogne blanc.
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                  How to... taste wine
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                  Pour
                  Pour a tasting measure of wine. This is anything up to a third of the glass full.
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                  Swirl
                  Swirl the glass gently and take a sniff. Don't spill the wine and don't sniff it up your nose: this hurts!
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                  Sip
                  Take a sip, and allow the wine to linger in your mouth a few moments. Then either swallow or spit (if you are tasting lots of wine, this helps).
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                  Taste
                  Think about the aromas and flavours. Are they interesting? Are they harmonious? Do you like them?
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                  Evaluate
                  Try to write down your impressions. This will be very hard at first, but it helps you develop a vocabulary for wine, and allows you to compare your impressions of different wines. It also focuses the mind on tasting.
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                  Grape: Malbec
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                  Location
                  Malbec has its origins in southern France but today is much better known as the signature red variety of Argentina. In France, it is mostly grown in the Cahors region, where it is known as Auxerrois or Cot and there are plantings in Bordeaux where Malbec is one of the permitted six varieties in Red Bordeaux. Other countries such as Chile, South Africa and Australia also grow and make wines made from Malbec.
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                  Climate
                  Malbec is another variety that is particularly sensitive to frost as it ripens fairly early, so is best suited for warmer climates. Recently, winemakers have started experimenting with cooler sites, particularly those at higher altitudes, as this prolongs the growing season and concentrates the flavours in the wine before harvest.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  In Argentina Malbec is most often sold as a singular varietal wine but is sometimes used in “Bordeaux blends” alongside Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot in other New World countries and blended with Tannat in the Cahors region.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Malbec is a black grape variety that makes rich, dark and juicy wines that are normally full-bodied, with typical flavours of plums, black cherries and usually some spice from oak-ageing. Those from Cahors tend to have a rustic character too.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Having naturally high levels of tannin and being largely cultivated in a country famous for its cattle production, it is no surprise that Malbec makes a great partner to steak, rich game and most red meat dishes. Some say it pairs quite well with dark chocolate too….try for yourself!
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                  Region: Vinho Verde
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                  Location
                  Vinho Verde lies in the Minho region of north-western Portugal on the Atlantic coast. This countryside-area of Portugal is lush and green. The Douro River crossed in the south of Minho, leading into the Port producing area.
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                  Climate
                  The Atlantic has a big influence on this area, with heavy rainfall throughout the year. The ocean influences the terroir, which characterizes wines by an incisive minerality, high in freshness and with a special gastronomic fit.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red (tinto) varieties: Vinhão, Borraçal and Amaral White (branco) varieties: Alvarinho, Arinto, Loureiro and Trajadura Rosés varieties: Espadeiro and Padeiro.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Vinho Verde is very fresh, due to its natural acidity, with fruity and floral aromas that depend on the grape variety.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Fish is in abundance in the Minho province and goes hand in hand with the light and fresh flavours of Vinho Verde.
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                  How to... open and serve Champagne and sparkling wine
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                  Under Pressure
                  Sparkling wine bottles can contain 6 bars of pressure, so the first rule is be careful. A Champagne cork can cause a lot of damage.
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                  Chill Out
                  First, chill the bottle down well. Carbon dioxide is more soluble in colder liquid, so cold bottles are safer to open.
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                  Six Twists of the Cage
                  Carefully remove the capsule and the wire cage, and keep the bottle pointing away from people because there is a small risk the cork will fly out at this stage.
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                  Twist the Bottle not the Cork
                  Grasp the bottle firmly and hold down the cork as you gently twist the bottle.
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                  Sharing the experience
                  As the cork loosens, keep twisting, but keep downwards pressure on it so it eases out slowly. If you do this slowly enough, no liquid should foam out of the bottle. Carefully pour it into glasses.
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                  Grape: Grenache
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                  Location
                  Grenache is one of the most widely planted red grape varieties in the world. It originates from Spain, most commonly the Navarra province. Other notable regions of quality include southern areas of France such as Châteauneuf-du-Pape (making up to 80% of the blend) and Languedoc-Roussillon.
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                  Climate
                  Grenache ripens late and so needs hot, dry conditions to ripen fully. The best results are found in areas with a long growing season influenced by a Mediterranean climate.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Grenache is a thin-skinned, red grape variety with naturally high levels of alcohol. It has low acidity and tannin levels and is light in colour. Grenache is often blended with other grape varieties such as Syrah, Carignan, Tempranillo and Cinsault, which add structure and longevity to the blend.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Grenache is also used to make delicate, rose wine in Provence, France and Navarra, Spain. In the Roussillon areas of Maury and Banyuls Grenache is the chief ingredient in the sweet, vins doux naturels, creating some of the most sought after sweet wines in the world.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Young Grenache pairs well with sausages and meat pies. Older, more complex Grenache, such as Châteauneuf-du-Pape is the perfect partner to game such as venison and rabbit.
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                  Region: Tuscany
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                  Location
                  Tuscany lies in central Italy along the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. The area extends over the provinces of Florence and Siena. Tuscany is home to some of the world’s most notable wine regions such as: Chianti, Brunello di Montacino, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Vernaccia di San Gimignano. Chianti offers a unique landscape, with green, gentle hills covered with wide fields of vineyards and olive groves.
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                  Climate
                  Tuscany has a warm mediterranean climate. The area is hilly, which moderates the climate, vineyards planted on higher sites receive a tempering affect from the elevations. The harvest time for Tuscany is September and October.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red (rosso) – Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon + other international varieties White (bianco) – Trebbiano, Malvasia, Vermentino
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Chianti is the largest classified zone in Tuscany, producing over 8 million cases a year. The region is split into two DOCG regions: Chianti and Chianti Classico. Chianti Classico is known to be the more prestigious of the two, covering the areas between Florence and Siena and must be made from only red grapes, containing 80% or more Sangiovese. Chianti Classico bottles have the distinctive black rooster on the neck of the bottles.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Sangiovese is perfectly suited to local cuisine including tomato pasta dishes, hard cheeses and cured Italian hams such as Prosciutto.
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                  How to... read a label
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                  Country and Region
                  Wine often tastes of a place. So a significant bit of information is the name of the region the wine is from. Often this information will be nested: the name of the country, then the region, then perhaps the sub-region, and sometimes even the vineyard.
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                  The producer
                  One of the biggest quality cues is the name of the producer. Good producers matter more than anything else, so it's worth being able to spot this information on the label.
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                  Old and New worlds
                  Wines from new world countries will often display the grape variety on the label: this is an important cue for style. Old world countries tend to focus on the place rather than the variety. Apps like Vivino are worth considering: they scan the label and give you reviews and information about the wine generated by other users.
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                  Alcohol Level
                  Alcohol level is a good clue as to style. Wines with higher alcohol tend to be more generous and often taste of very ripe, sweet fruit. It's whether or not you like this style.
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                  Design
                  Often the design of the label can give you a clue as to how modern or old fashioned the wine will be. Again, it all depends on what you like.
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                  Grape: Sauvignon Blanc
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                  Location
                  Sauvignon Blanc originates from Bordeaux and South-West France, but these days is grown almost everywhere. Many argue that the finest examples come from the Loire Valley in France, where it is the grape responsible for Sancerre and Pouilly Fumé, but in the modern era it is New Zealand that is most famous for this white variety.
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                  Climate
                  Sauvignon has a short growing season, with the vines budding late but ripening early. Because of this, it needs plentiful sun but not overwhelming heat. Warm maritime and continental climates such as those found along the Loire Valley and Marlborough, New Zealand provide the optimum climatic conditions.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Sauvignon Blanc is a white grape variety, grown to produce still white wines that are light and aromatic in character. Flavours include grassy aromas, citrus fruits, asparagus and tropical fruits.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Sauvignon Blanc has high acidity and sugar content, meaning it can also be made into sweet wines such as Sauternes. Despite being a white variety, Sauvignon Blanc is one of the parent varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon. The ‘grassy’ aroma often associated with Sauvignon Blanc is derived from methoxypyrazine, a chemical also found green bell peppers. Sauvignon Blanc is the 8th most planted grape varieties worldwide.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Sauvignon Blanc makes an excellent aperitif and is often enjoyed on its own, but pairs well with light fish dishes, salads and goats cheese.
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                  Region: Marlborough
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                  Location
                  Marlborough is the largest of all the New Zealand winemaking regions. Occupying the north-eastern tip of the South island, it is most famous for its Sauvignon-Blancs which kick-started the industry in the 1970s. Marlborough has two valleys, the Wairau and Awatere, along which many of the region’s vineyards are planted.
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                  Climate
                  Warm, dry and sunny. Cool Pacific breezes help to promote acidity levels in the grapes and a long growing season which ensures high quality, expressive grapes. The Awatere valley is slightly cooler than the Wairau as it is located closer to the Pacific Ocean.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  White – Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Riesling Red – Pinot Noir, Bordeaux blend (Cabernet Sauvignon & Merlot).
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Approximately two thirds of all land in New Zealand under vine is in the region of Marlborough. Marlborough produces 90% of all New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Seafood is very popular, starring smoked salmon, blue cod and greenshell mussels.
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                  How to... develop a wine vocabulary
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                  Building your vocabulary
                  The words we have for describing wines are important, because they can help us understand the wine better and get more out of it.
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                  Smell & Taste
                  The starting point is to begin to recognize various smells and tastes in the wine, such as fruits, spices and herbs. The wine aroma wheel – which lists lots of wine smells – can be helpful here.
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                  Pieces of the puzzle
                  But as well as recognizing individual elements in wine, it's also important to consider the wine as a whole, thinking of how the different elements fit together.
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                  Harmony
                  Think about more global properties of the wine: is it balanced? Is it harmonious? Feel free to use figurative language such as metaphors and similes.
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                  Texture
                  Wine also has structure. In whites this is usually provided by acidity. In reds it is tannins (the astringent, grippy flavours) and sometimes also acidity. How does the wine feel in the mouth?
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                  Grape: Pinot Grigio
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                  Location
                  Pinot Grigio is most famously known for easy-drinking, neutral styles produced in Northern Italy, but its origins are in Alsace where it is known as Pinot Gris and made in a fuller-bodied, spicy and more complex style. However Argentina and New Zealand are also producing Pinot Grigio in the regions of Mendoza and Marlborough, but in a similar style as those made in Alsace.
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                  Climate
                  Pinot Gris/Grigio grows best in cool continental climates as this delays the ripening of the grapes naturally high sugar levels.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  A style labelled ‘Pinot Grigio’ will typically be harvested early to maintain acidity, and thus be light-bodied, pale yellow in colour and fairly neutral in character. It is also usually relatively low in alcohol. ‘Pinot Gris’ tends to be full-bodied and dark gold in colour, spicy with tropical flavours and occasionally off-dry and oily in character. Higher levels of ripeness in the grapes mean more sugar is available to convert into alcohol, and as such Pinot Gris often hovers around 14% ABV.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Despite producing only white wine, Pinot Grigio grapes are actually greyish blue in colour. There are around 29,000 hectares of Pinot Grigio grown around the world, of which roughly one third of which is grown in Italy. Pinot Grigio is one of the earliest wines to reach the market, between 4 – 12 weeks after fermentation has occurred...
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  ‘Pinot Grigio’ pairs well with risotto and pesto-based dishes. ‘Pinot Gris’ makes a great companion to spicy or aromatic dishes due to its oily texture and often complementary, fragrant perfume.
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                  Region: Languedoc-Roussillon
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                  Location
                  Languedoc-Roussillon is the southern-most region of France, spanning the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is the largest wine producing region of the world with over 700,000 acres under vine. Notable areas of quality include Picpoul de Pinet and Corbières.
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                  Climate
                  This region has a Mediterranean influence: the region is hot and arid and is the driest region in France. Irrigation is necessary and will become more important with global warming.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red (rouge) Varieties: Grenache, Syrah, Carignan, Cinsault, and Mourvedre White (blanc) Varieties: Roussanne, Marsanne, Chardonnay and Picpoul Languedoc-Roussillon red wines tend to be high-alcohol blends that are fruit driven and full-bodied. For the whites, Roussanne and Marsanne have also journeyed from the Rhône Valley to add finesse and flavour to Mediterranean white blends, which have body and character.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Sweet Wines: In the regions of Maury and Banyuls fortified, sweet wines are made from the red grape, Grenache. Fermentation is halted by the addition of grape spirit raising the alcohol level and preventing all the sugars of the juice from fermenting. The winemaker can choose to age these wines in demi-johns in the sun which causes deliberate oxidation, developing flavours of dried fruit and caramel.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Red varietals such as Grenache and Syrah are well suited to local dishes such as cassoulet and wild boar. Sweet Maurys pair deliciously well with dark chocolate desserts.
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                  How to choose the right glass
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                  The right glass for the job
                  Glassware matters. It's a big factor in the enjoyment of wine. A good glass can make all the difference, so it is worth paying a bit more.
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                  Fish Bowl
                  Choose a glass that has a reasonably sized bowl that gets thinner at the top. For red wines, a slightly bigger bowl is best.
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                  Reds
                  Lighter reds such as Pinot Noir and Gamay do well with a wider bowl; structured reds such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah do best with a taller bowl.
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                  Weight and Elegance
                  The higher quality the glass, the narrower the rim. Top quality glasses feel weightless, but they are also quite fragile.
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                  Relaxed Sipping
                  Good quality stemless glasses can be a great option for more informal drinking, or eating outside
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                  Grape: Pinot Noir
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                  Location
                  Pinot Noir is grown all over the world and is made in a variety of styles depending on the location. It originates from France where it is most commonly planted in Burgundy and goes into making some of the most expensive wines in the world, including Domaine de la Romanée-Conti, which sells for thousands of pounds in any good vintage. Pinot Noir is an early ripening variety and produces the best results in cool areas where it can ripen for longer. Regions include Burgundy, Germany, the cooler valleys of Chile and California where the fog from the Pacific Ocean cools the land.
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                  Climate
                  Generally speaking Pinot Noir enjoys a continental climate with long sunshine hours during the day and cool evenings so it can retain natural elegance and acidity.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Pinot Noir is a small, thin skinned black grape which forms tight bunches. It is naturally high in acidity with medium to low tannins. It produces lightly colours red wines which are light in body with low to medium levels of alcohol. Pinot Noir can benefit from oak or bottle aging. Ageing is common for premium styles of Pinot Noir from Burgundy such as Nuit-Saint-George and Volnay. Pinot Noir can be blended with other varieties, most famously with Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier in Champagne.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Despite its prestigious reputation in Burgundy, almost as much Pinot Noir is grown in the USA (~29000 hectares) as in France (~30,000 hectares). Unexpectedly for a wine known for being light and white, roughly 40% of the vineyards of the Champagne region are made up of Pinot Noir. Due to a surge in the popularity of English Sparkling Wine, there are now over 300 hectares of Pinot Noir planted in England.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Pinot Noir pairs well with a wide range of foods including traditional French cuisine like beef bourguignon and Coq au Vin. As it is light in character it can also be paired with meaty fish like seared Tuna and Salmon.
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                  Region: Mendoza
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                  Location
                  Mendoza is in Argentina, South America, at the foothills of the Andres and in the shadow of Mount Aconcagua. This area accounts for nearly two-thirds of the country's entire wine production and is the largest producing region in South America.
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                  Climate
                  Mendoza has a continental climate with semi-arid desert conditions. Vineyards are planted at some of the highest altitudes in the word, around 2,000-3,600 ft above sea level, which provides a tempering influence. Irrigation is a necessity.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red Varieties: Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo Whites Varieties: Chardonnay + other international varieties Malbec is the national variety of Mendoza. It is a French grape variety brought over by migrants. It produces wines of great intensity, concentration and high alcohol. It has signature jammy flavours of black cherry and plum and has an affinity for oak. Argentina’s wine industry is now focusing on single varietal wines of premium quality.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Mendoza is not only the largest region in South America, it is also the sixth-largest grape producer in the whole world. The altitude at which Malbec vines are planted at in Mendoza is largely because of the pioneering work of Nicolas Catena Zapata in the early 20th century.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Argentina’s cuisine has Mediterranean influences, with livestock such as pigs and cows being a key staple of their diet. Rich beef and barbequed dishes pair perfectly with Malbec.
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                  How to... expand your knowledge of wine
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                  Enhancing your enjoyment
                  Learning about wine is a great way of increasing your enjoyment, and as long as you go about it the right way, it can be fun rather than painful
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                  Learn by reading
                  Books are a great way to start: reference works like the World Atlas of Wine are a great resource for any wine lover
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                  Learn by browsing
                  There's now quite a bit of free wine content on the internet, and wine videos are available on YouTube
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                  Learn by tasting
                  Go to a tasting: tasting lots of wines at an organized tasting can be very educational.
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                  Learn by travel
                  Visiting wine regions is a brilliant way to begin to understand wine on a deeper level. You can tour the vineyards and even see inside wineries, as well as tasting wines at the cellar door.
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                  Grape: Riesling
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                  Location
                  Riesling is one of the world’s most popular grape varieties and today it is grown on every continent of the wine producing world. It originates from Germany where it is classed as a noble variety and is the most planted variety (21% total production). Regions of notable quality also include Alsace, Austria, and Clare & Eden Valleys in Australia.
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                  Climate
                  Riesling is a late-ripening variety that thrives in cool to warm continental climates, where it can enjoy long ripening periods and maintain its naturally high levels of acidity.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Riesling is a white grape variety, naturally high in acidity, making outstanding dry, semi-dry, sweet and sparkling styles of wine. It is an aromatic variety which has the ability to produce powerful wines with high alcohol and full body. Riesling is usually found as a single varietal wine, rather than blend. To maintain its pure expression and perfume aromas it doesn’t tend to be oaked.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Eis/Ice Wines: In Germany and Canada Riesling can be left on the vine and allowed to freeze as the winter months set in. The grapes are harvested during the night and crushed immediately. The ice and skins are discarded, leaving highly concentrated grape nectar, which becomes Icewine, otherwise known as ‘nectar of the Gods.’
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Riesling is a versatile wine for pairing with food, because of its balance of sugar and acidity. It can be paired with white fish or pork, and is one of the few wines that can stand up to the stronger flavours and spices of Thai and Chinese cuisine.
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                  Region: Rioja
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                  Location
                  In Northern Spain next to the Ebro River is the area of La Rioja. Most of the region sits 460 m above sea level. The area is subdivided into three regions - Rioja Alavesa, Rioja Alta (the highest region in Rioja) and Rioja Baja (the warmest and driest region).
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                  Climate
                  Rioja has a continental climate. The surrounding mountains help to isolate the region which has a moderating effect on the climate. They also protect the vineyards from the fierce winds that are typical of northern Spain. The harvest time for Rioja is September and October.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red (tinto) - Tempranillo, Garnacha Tinto White (blanco) - Viura, Verdejo Rosé (rosado) – Garnacha • Tempranillo has great aging potential, commonly planted in Rioja and Ribera del Duero • Oak aging with French and American oak. • Some winemakers age their wines for 15-20 years in oak before release! Oak allows oxygen to come into contact with the wine creating oxidative characters such as nuts, caramel and coffee.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  85% of wine made in Rioja is red. Classifications: Crianza: aged for at least two years, at least one in oak Reserva: aged for at least three years, at least one year in oak Gran Reserva: aged at least two years in oak and three years in bottle
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Rioja Tapas is simple using top quality produce sourced locally, such as: pulses, peppers, garlic, onions, artichokes, and asparagus.
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                  How to... interpret the colour of wine
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                  Setting
                  • You can tell quite a lot from the colour of a wine. It helps to look at the wine with a white background under good light. Pay particular attention to the rim.
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                  Reds
                  • For red wines, younger wines tend to be more black/purple, while older wines develop more orange/brick red/brown hues, especially around the edge.
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                  Whites
                  For white wines, younger wines are paler while older wines become more yellow and even gold in colour.
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                  Oaked or Unoaked
                  Oaked white wines are usually darker in colour than unoaked whites.
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                  Depth
                  • Some red grapes make paler coloured wines. Pinot Noir and Grenache wines are typically paler and more red in colour than Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah, for example, which tend to be more black/purple.
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                  Grape: Sangiovese
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                  Location
                  Sangiovese is the celebrated grape of Tuscany, central Italy. It is responsible for Chianti Classico, Brunello di Montalcino, Montepulciano and the blended ‘Super Tuscans,’ including Tignanello.
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                  Climate
                  Sangiovese enjoys a Mediterranean climate as it requires a long growing season. Grapes bud early and are slow to ripen so require sufficient warmth to ripen fully.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Sangiovese is a black grape variety with high natural acidity, making medium bodied wines. Winemakers may choose to add body and texture to Sangiovese wines with various techniques including oak treatments, concentrated low yielding vines (especially old vines) and long macerations during fermentation. International varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon can also be added to the blend to add body and structure.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Chianti classic wines must contain at least 80% Sangiovese
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Sangiovese is perfectly suited to local cuisine including tomato pasta dishes, hard cheeses and cured Italian hams such as Prosciutto.
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                  Region: Sicily
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                  Location
                  Sicily is a volcanic island in the south of Italy, next to the toe of the boot. It is surrounded by water: the Ionian Sea to the east, and by the Tyrrhenian Sea to the north. The two best known producing regions are Etna in the East and Marsala in the west.
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                  Climate
                  Sicily has a mediterranean climate with consistently bright sunshine and moderate rainfall. Temperatures reach 44°C during the summer and so coastal breezes are important in tempering the climate. Sicily is a volcanic island with Mount Etna dominating the island’s eastern skyline, and provides fertile, mineral-rich, dark soils which characterize the Etna DOC vineyards. Vines are planted on the volcanic slopes, to benefit from the cooler air and richer soils.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red (Rosso) Varieties: Nero d’Avola + international varieties Whites (Bianco) Varieties: Catarratto, Grillo + international varieties • Catarratto is responsible for 32% of Sicily’s plantings making light, easy drinking white wines with low acidity and neutral character. It is also an ingredient of Marsala wines, one of the world’s greatest fortified wines. • Nero d’Avola is responsible for 16% of Sicily’s plantings and can be made into light, fruity styles with juicy raspberry & plum flavours. Due to its high levels of tannin, Nero d’Avola is suitable for aging, traditionally in oak barrels developing into dense, dark wines developing flavours of chocolate a spice.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Whilst Sicilian soil is ideal for growing grapes, it is pretty much useless for the cultivation of any other crops – probably explaining why wine production has such a long and established history. Vineyards cover around 120,000 hectares of Sicilian land, with 64% being white varieties and 36% black. Sicily is the second largest wine region in Italy, just behind Puglia in terms of wine production.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Sicily is nicknamed ‘God’s kitchen’ as the ingredients are fresh, healthy, and typically rich in taste while remaining affordable to locals. Fresh fish is in abundance pairing well with fresh white wines made from Grillo and Catarratto. Tomato pasta dishes and their signature rice dish, arancini is the perfect match for Nero d’Avola.
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                  How to... tell a wine is 'oaked'
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                  Behind the label
                  Only a small proportion of wines will say ‘oaked’ on the label but there are other tell-tale signs for the wine having seen the inside of a barrel.
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                  Smell
                  There are distinctive aromas inherited from oak barrels, and the newer the barrel the stronger the aroma. Vanilla is indicative of French oak and coconut points towards American oak.
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                  Texture
                  When producers choose to mature wine in oak barrels the structure of the wine softens over time. The elements of the wine have time to intermingle with the oak becoming mellow, with rounder body.
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                  Color
                  A small amount of oxygen seeps through oak, which over time alters the colour of the wine. Reds become lighter and more garnet, whereas whites become darker and more golden.
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                  Why oak?
                  It is entirely subjective how much influence producers want to take from oak, varying the age and type of oak used and the length of time spent with the wine.
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                  Grape: Syrah
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                  Location
                  Syrah and Shiraz are the same grape despite having two different names, and has its origins in the Rhone Valley of France. Syrah is also planted throughout Southern France, and under the Shiraz ‘moniker’ there are significant plantings in Australia, California and South Africa.
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                  Climate
                  Syrah/Shiraz does not like the cold as it ripens late, and as such is best grown in warm to hot climates such as those found in the Mediterranean, California and Barossa Valley, Australia.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Syrah/Shiraz is a black grape variety used to make inky, medium-to-full-bodied and flavourful wines. The top examples of Syrah/Shiraz wines can age for decades due to their tannic structure. Syrah/Shiraz has high sugar and acidity levels. In cooler climates, such as the Rhone Valley, it can also have noticeable tannin levels. Shiraz is also used in Australia to make a sparkling style of red wine. Syrah blends well with and compliments a number of different grapes, such as Mourvedre and Grenache in the Rhone and Southern France, Viognier in Cote Rotie, Carignan and Cinsault in the Languedoc region and Cabernet Sauvignon in Southern Australia.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  Syrah is the 6th most widely planted grape variety worldwide, with more than 186,000 hectares worldwide. Around 60% of all Syrah is planted in France or Australia. Shiraz is also used in Australia to make a sparkling red wine.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Most hearty meat dishes pair well with Syrah/Shiraz. However, lighter wines made in the Syrah style tend to go well with more delicate or spiced dishes, whereas Shiraz style wines are perfect with rustic, barbequed meat.
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                  Region: Stellenbosh
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                  Location
                  Stellenbosch is one of the oldest towns on the Western Cape of South Africa. It is sheltered in a valley, surrounded on three sides by mountains. The mixture of hillsides and sheltered spots allows a wide selection of grape varieties to be successfully grown.
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                  Climate
                  Described as a Mediterranean climate, summers here are dry and hot while winters are wet, cool and windy. The well-draining mountainous terrain helps to lessen the impact of rainstorms, and the extremes of weather are tempered by the influence of the nearby False Bay.
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                  Grape Varieties
                  Red – Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet-Franc, Pinotage, Shiraz White – Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc Stellenbosch red blends are influenced by the Bordeaux style of Cabernet Sauvignon blended with Merlot.
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                  Interesting Facts
                  A fifth of all vines planted in South Africa are in Stellenbosch, with a winemaking history stretching back several centuries. Pinotage was created here in 1924 when Pinot Noir was crossed with Cinsault.
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                  Perfect Pairings
                  Meat features heavily, with the ‘braai’ (barbecue) being a weekly staple for many families. Biltong and other forms of preserved meats are also popular. The slave trade introduced Eastern influences such as ‘Cape Dutch’ and ‘Cape Malay’. These are cuisines heavily influenced by slaves from as far afield as India, Malaysia and Indonesia.
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                  How to... Spot Wine Faults
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                  Dull
                  If a wine has lost vibrancy of colour and flavour this indicates oxidation where oxygen has entered the bottle. This less likely to happen with a screw cap bottle than with a cork closure.
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                  Damp
                  If you can smell damp cardboard in your glass of wine the most like cause is cork taint which happens in the winery before the bottle hits our shelves. The chemical which causes it is called trichloroanisole and is present in oak barrels.
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                  Egg
                  A side of egg is never a pleasant contribution to wine. This fault comes from sulphites, which are either added as a stabiliser when the wine is made or a natural by-product of fermentation. Aside from the smell, sulphites are completely harmless!
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                  Jam
                  When a wine is left out in the heat for too long the fruit flavours concentrate and give off a jammy, processed fruit aroma. The heat can also compromise the cork, causing it to be pushed out of the bottle. In short, don’t leave your wine in the sun!
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                  Sweaty Horse
                  Not a common fault, thankfully, this smelly fault is caused by bacteria living in wine, picked up in the winery. In small doses these tiny microbes can add complexity including barnyard flavours, but too much and the wine becomes pretty gross.
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                  20
                  As a Perfect 3 member, enjoy an extra 20% off this bottle with the code: MP320
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                  13.95
                  Domaine de Landreau Anthonin Dubreuil Crémant de Loire Brut NV
                  Domaine de Landreau
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                  The Craftpeople
                  Domaine de Landreau’s Crémant is made in the same way as Champagne and so is always great value for money. Packed full of flavours of apples and pears, this delicate sparkling is perfect as an aperitif. Situated in the heart of the Coteaux du Layon, Domaine de Landreau are specialists in the regional wines of the Loire valley. With four generations of experience, they are closely bonded with the land on which they work.
                  Vines are grown on soil that best suits each variety so that each wine is full of individual character and definition. Hand-harvesting and careful sorting ensure only the best quality grapes are chosen, while slow fermentations help to bring out the unique expression of each wine. These are then treated to longer than average ageing time in the family cellars, adding polish to the already stunning wines.
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                  Tasting Notes
                  Packed full of flavours of apples and pears, this wine is uncomplicated and although dry and crisp it has plenty of vibrant grapey flavours. A wine fit for any occasion, adding something extra special to a celebration. This wine is a high-quality and well balanced delight.
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                  Matchmaker
                  Perfect with a light starter such as smoked salmon. Cremant is also a favourite with fish and chips amongst the Perfect Cellar team as the fresh acidity cuts through the batter to pair exquisitely with the delicate fish!
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                  Grape Variety
                  There are a multitude of red and white grape varieties grown along the Loire including Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, and Cabernet Franc.
                  his Cremant is made with a local variety to the Coteaux du Layon called Grolleau, meaning "crow" and is said to reflect the deep black berries of the Grolleau vine. Grolleau produces light bodied wines with noticeably bright acidity, perfect for the production of Cremant de Loire.
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                  15.95
                  Domaine Charly Nicolle Chablis Ancestrum 2014
                  Domaine Charly Nicolle
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                  The Craftpeople
                  This is an exemplary Chablis from rising star producer Charly Nicolle, which would rival many lesser Premier Cru Chablis. Simply excellent, beautiful, meadow-fresh wine with a vibrant, citrus appeal.
                  Charly Nicolle’s vineyards in Burgundy include the Premier Cru site Mont de Milieu. His wines respect tradition, benefited by seven generations of wine-making. Charly farms according to organic and biodynamic principles, and is heavily involved in all aspects of grape growing and winemaking.
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                  Tasting Notes
                  This is an unoaked style of white Burgundy with charming meadow-fresh aromas and vibrant citrussy appeal. Bone-dry with a plump and well-rounded finish balanced with a sunny lemon character, fresh pear and apple and chalky minerality. A salty tang works in perfect harmony with the refreshing acidity, just like the waves lapping at the shore. You should also pick up a bit of flint or wet stone, this is typical of the Chablis appellation.
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                  Matchmaker
                  This crisp dry white with high mineral backbone is perfect to chill down and drink on its own or to pair with a light, delicate fish such as seabass or pan-fried scallops.
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                  Grape Variety
                  Chardonnay is a white grape variety, grown to produce an array of white wine styles from light- to full-bodied, and is also a major constituent in sparkling wines such as Champagne.
                  Chardonnay has moderate to high acidity and sugar content, depending on the climatic conditions it is grown in. It is often combined with other grape varieties such as Marsanne, Roussanne and Viognier in Southern France, and famously with Pinot Noir in Champagne.
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                  Teso La Monja
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                  The Craftpeople
                  From arguably one of the most prestigious estates in all Spain, the 2013 Románico is a sensuous wine made from 100% Tinta de Toro, the local name for Tempranillo, and is aged for six months in French oak.
                  Teso La Monja leads the way for the Toro appellation. The world-renowned Eguren family had been the powerhouse behind the transformation of the region for over a decade already before they acquired prized land to create Teso la Monja in 2007. Winemaker Marcos Eguren demonstrates an obsession for the fruit and an extreme respect for the land, defined by the power and elegance in his wines. The vines make these very special as they have an average age of over 50 years.
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                  Tasting Notes
                  In the words of the winemaker, this wine is "expressive, direct, friendly and without losing the identity and fruity character of the area."
                  This is a full bodied and deeply gratifying wine, demonstrated by an intense, royal purple colour. The aromas are mature and savoury with pepper and licorice. On the palate there is an abundance of flavours including violets, licorice, blackberries and black currants. This wine can be aged for a further 10 years and still uphold its complexity and fruit.
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                  Matchmaker
                  This is a food lovers wine to pair with red meats, game or Spanish cured ham.
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                  Tempranillo is responsible for making the full-bodied, long-lived wines of Rioja and Toro in Spain. It has an affinity for oak, producing smooth and spicy reds, designed to be paired with hearty meals and Spanish cheeses.
                  Relatively neutral so it is often blended with other varieties, such as Grenache and Carignan, or aged for extended periods in oak where the wine easily takes on the flavour of the barrel.
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                  13.95
                  Ville d’Arfanta Prosecco Valdobbiadene Superiore Brut Millesimato 2015
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                  The Craftpeople
                  Ville d'Arfanta's wines are the signature of the Serena family. Five generations of winemaking expertise ensures their wines are perfectly crafted. In fact their artisan heritage can be traced back as far as 1390, with many landowners and craftsmen in the family. The cool hills of Valdobbiadene in the region of Treviso are perfect for making high quality Prosecco.
                  It is not often you will find a Prosecco made from a single vintage. As in Champagne, the best fruit tends to be reserved for this style, making it a more complex and thoughtful sparkling wine than your typical bottle of Prosecco.
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                  Tasting Notes
                  Made from the ripest fruit, elegant scents of rose and jasmine rise from the glass. The taste is reminiscent of apples, pears, pineapples and bananas, while the freshness remains at all times. This expression of a single vintage year is a superb example of what can be acheived with attention to detail and excellent vineyard sites.
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                  Matchmaker
                  This delicate sparkling is perfect as an aperitif or perfect with sushi and dim sum.
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                  Grape Variety
                  Prosecco is made from the white grape, Glera, which is native to Italy. It makes light, straw coloured wines with delicate floral aromas and is characterised by citrus and apple flavours.
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                  The Craftpeople
                  Quinta da Calcada has specialised in the production of fresh and vibrant Vinho Verde for over a century. Vinho Verde puts Portugal in the map for white wine production and this Quinta makes no exception in making this delicious wine with a slight spritz! Their Vinho Verde is an impeccable example of what this region has to offer: fresh, modern, delicious wine with character that’s distinctly unique to this region.
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                  Tasting Notes
                  This region is greatly influenced by the Atlantic sea, which provides an exceptional character to the wine, which you can’t find anywhere else in the world. Bright yellow in colour with a burst of citrus aromas on the note. This is a bone dry Vinho Verde with a mineral backbone that creates an awesome freshness enhanced by the slight spritz at the end that tingles your tongue. There’s some Albariño in the blend providing weight and persistence, this is a great foodie wine.
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                  Matchmaker
                  Vinho Verde finds its soul mate with all types of fish dishes. It also pairs beautifully with roast pork and salsa verde dressing.
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                  Grape Variety
                  Alvarinho is a native white grape variety grown in the north of Portugal, which is called Albarino in Spain. This is a light white grape with natural bright acidity. It is characterized by citrus and stone fruit flavours and floral aromas.
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                  11.95
                  Filus Malbec Uco Valley 2014
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                  The Craftpeople
                  Filus Malbec is a multi-award winning wine and the perfect incarnation of the Uco Valley. Uco Valley became one of the most well-known areas in Argentina winemaking. Filus Winery is a true reflection of the passion, dedication and pursuit of excellence from its founders, Ambrosio Di Leo and Gustavo Capone.
                  To make Filus wines they use the best selection of grapes from vineyards located at the foot of the Andes Mountains, a careful process in the cellar, the most advanced technology and French oak barrels from the best coopers.
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                  Tasting Notes
                  This wine gives instant gratification with bursts of violet, licorice and black fruit perfume on the nose. On the palate, there is impressive flavour intensity, with a great fruit expression and nice ripe tannins. This wine is balanced and complex, with mouthwatering acidity and great aging potential. It displays an elegant finish with light mint notes.
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                  Matchmaker
                  Having naturally high levels of tannin and being largely cultivated in a country famous for its cattle production, it is no surprise that Malbec makes a great partner to steak, rich game and most red meat dishes. Some say it pairs quite well with dark chocolate too….try for yourself!
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                  Grape Variety
                  Malbec is a black grape variety that makes rich, dark and juicy wines that are normally full-bodied, with typical flavours of plums, black cherries and usually some spice from oak-ageing. Those from Cahors tend to have a rustic character too.
                  Argentinian Malbec in particular has a trademark pleasing velvety texture, which is often cited as the reason behind its recent surge in popularity. It is most often sold as a singular varietal wine but is sometimes blended with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.
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                  10.45
                  Vina Almirante Albariño 2015
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                  Winemaker
                  Vina Almirante is an award-winning winery renowned for its white wines made from the Albariño grape variety. Its legendary vineyard are in the north-west region of Rias Baixas in Spain. This region boarders the Atlantic sea, with a dramatic coast line, greatly influenced by the ocean. This provides a unique mineral character to the wine, which you can’t find anywhere else in the world.
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                  Tasting Notes
                  Albarino is an aromatic white grape with distinctive stone fruit flavours of apricot and peach. This is their latest vintage and is designed to be drunk young for optimum freshness. Bursts of grapefruit and a hint of salt freshness is followed by the classic stone fruits that linger on the palate.
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                  Matchmaker
                  This wine was handcrafted next to the ocean, its natural partner is shellfish. Having naturally high levels of acidity this wine also goes perfectly with battered cod as it breaks up the oily batter becoming the ideal companion for the light, flakey fish.
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                  Grape Variety
                  Albarino is a white grape variety from northern regions of Portugal and Spain, most famously the Rias Baixas DO in north-west of Spain. Wines are light and fruity, with naturally high acidity. Typical fruit flavours include apricot and peach. These wines are designed to be enjoyed young to maintain the vibrant fruit character.
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                  12.95
                  Chateau Matheron Cotes de Provence Rose 2015
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                  Winemaker
                  Château Matheron is making classic Provencal rose wines in a style that is coveted throughout the world. This is a family estate located in the AOC Côtes de Provence, not only is this a great holiday destination but it’s also a fantastic climate to grow grapes with long sunshine days throughout the summer months. They choose to harvest grapes by night to keep the maximum freshness of aromas. They are then directly pressed to get a pale pink hue and extract only the fruitiest flavors.
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                  Tasting Notes
                  This wine is the epitome of elegance and class. A beautiful pale colour in the glass, the aromas and flavours are dominated by gentle red fruits and citrus. There is a streak of refreshing acidity that runs through and ends in a burst of spices and a touch of cream.
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                  Matchmaker
                  When the sun is out, not much can beat a glass or two of Provence rosé. Shellfish or salads are ideal matches for the high acidity and gentle flavours.
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                  Grape Variety
                  Grenache is one of the most widely planted red grape varieties in the world. It makes spicy, soft red wines in the Navarra province, Spain and Chateauneuf du Pape in Southern France. The grape's thin skin and pale coloring makes it well suited for delicate, fruity styles of rosé.
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                  11.95
                  Cantine Minini Poggio delle Faine Rosso 2010
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                  Winemaker
                  This is a beautiful wine made in the stunning hills surrounding the city of Siena. Cantine Minini has achieved a classic Chianti style with great oak structure and a modern splash of Cabernet Sauvignon. Cantine Minini was founded at the end of the First World War when Mr. Francesco Minini returned as a young soldier with very little money in his pockets, but great determination to begin a wine business. His family has been making wines for over a century focusing on agriculture and injecting the passion of the Italian culture into their wines.
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                  Tasting Notes
                  Deep garnet in colour, there are warming, sweet spiced aromas that can only be found in this part of the world. This is a full bodied Italian that deserves some time to breathe before drinking!
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                  Matchmaker
                  Sangiovese is perfectly suited to local cuisine including tomato pasta dishes, hard cheeses and cured Italian hams such as Prosciutto.
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                  Grape Variety
                  Sangiovese is the celebrated grape of Tuscany, central Italy. It is a black grape variety with high natural acidity, making medium bodied wines. Winemakers may choose to add body and texture to Sangiovese wines with various techniques including oak treatments
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                  10.45
                  Vina Falernia Number 1 Estate Sauvignon Blanc Reserva 2015
                  Vina Falernia N.1 Sauvignon Blanc 2015
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                  Winemaker
                  Vina Falernia's wines are made by the renowned Italian winemaker Giorgio Flessati. This multi-award winning range represents some extraordinary feats of wine making in the desert that is the Elqui valley, 500km north of Santiago. Although cacti grow among the vines the altitude helps to retain vital freshness, producing a fruity and aromatic style with a delightfully refreshing crisp acidity.
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                  Taste
                  A characterful Sauvignon from the Elqui valley in Chile. Citrus, grapefruit, elderflower and sage leap from the glass .This is an accessible and extremely tasty Sauvignon made with real panache. Strong willed is the person who doesn't reach for another glass.
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                  Matchmaker
                  As with Sauvignon Blanc from the Loire Valley in France, this crisp, aromatic white meets its perfect partner with delicate white fish dishes that tend to be drizzled in lemon juice. Alternatively, try pairing with the creamy textured goats cheese and allow the wine to lighten the dish and cut through the rich flavours.
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                  Grape
                  Sauvignon Blanc is an aromatic variety that is very easy to appreciate due to the fruit burst it delivers with every swig, along with its signature character of crisp, elegant and refreshing. From green and grassy citrus flavours in France to robust tropical bursts in warmer climates such as Chile. This grape can also transform itself into the most sought-after sweet wines of the world including Sauternes.
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                  11.45
                  Principe de Viana Edicion Rosa 2015
                  Principe de Viana Edicion Rosa 2015
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                  Winemaker
                  Principe de Viana is a benchmark winery of Navarra, producing wines that are a credit to the region and reflective of the land and culture. This region is in the north east corner of Spain, benefiting from a warm continental climate with long sunshine hours. Wines are made from old Garnacha vines, the Spanish name for Grenache. This is a thin-skinned red grape variety, which makes their delicious, award-winning rosé. Principe de Viana harvest their grapes by night to retain optimum freshness.
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                  Taste
                  Wild strawberries and orange blossom are inviting on the nose. The palate is smooth and elegant, yet lively with a medley of youthful red fruits including raspberries and strawberries. This is a subtle, smooth and well balanced rosé.
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                  Matchmaker
                  This is a versatile rosé that would work wonderfully with Asian cuisine due to the ripe, sweet red fruit flavours. Alternatively, choose a traditional, hearty seafood paella and enjoy an authentic Spanish experience.
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                  Grape
                  Grenache is one of the most widely planted red grape varieties in the world. It originates from Spain, most commonly the Navarra province. It is a thin-skinned, red grape variety with naturally high levels of alcohol and is light in colour. Grenache is used to make delicate, rosé wine in Provence, France and Navarra, Spain.
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                  Santi Solane 2013
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                  Winemaker
                  Santi was established in 1843 and since then has developed a reputation for producing wines of outstanding quality. Their vineyards are located in the north of Italy where Santi’s Valpolicella Ripasso is made in the finest, Classico zone. Grapes are hand-picked and the wine is a true expression of the land. They use the ripasso method where grape skins are reserved and blended back into the juice to give a sensational deep colour and flavour.
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                  Taste
                  Solane has a deep ruby colour. The aromas are clean, complex and intense, with strong hints of fresh red fruits and of wild cherry preserve, rounded off by hints of smoke and vanilla from the time spent in oak. The palate is warming and well-defined, with an elegant black pepper spice and sweet, soft tannins. But what sets it apart is its striking elegance and length of flavour. This is a wine that can age for years.
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                  Matchmaker
                  The hints of cherry sweetness means this Valpolicella pairs beautifully with sticky ribs. Its confident structure also makes braised veal or game sausages a great match!
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                  Grape
                  Corvina is the principle grape, native to northern Italy. It has thick skins which make deep, intensely coloured wines. The method used to make this wine is called ripasso (literally meaning 'repassed'), where leftover grape skins from Amarone fermentation is added to the Valpolicella. This enriches the wine with a perfumed aroma and a powerful fruit character. The yeast finds the skins nutritious which enables them to bump up the alcohol by a degree or two, which also increases the body of the wine.
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                  10.95
                  Ville d’Arfanta Prosecco Frizzante Spago NV
                  Ville d'Arfanta Prosecco
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                  10.95
                  Vignobles Jeanjean Secret de Lunès Viognier 2015
                  Vignobles Jean jean Secret de Lunes
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                  18.95
                  Vina Falernia Number 1 Estate Cabernet, Shiraz & Carmenere Gran Reserva 2012
                  Vina Falernia Number 1 Carmenere Shiraz
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                  10.95
                  Ville d’Arfanta Prosecco Frizzante Spago NV
                  Ville D'Arfanta Prosecco Spaggo
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                  10.95
                  Vignobles Jeanjean Secret de Lunès Viognier 2015
                  Vignobles Jeanjean Secret de Lunes
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                  11.95
                  Vina Falernia Number 1 Estate Carmenere & Shiraz Reserva 2014
                  Vina Falernia Number 1 Carmenere Shiraz
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                  13.45
                  Vallformosa Origen Brut Nature NV
                  Vallformosa Origen Brut Nature NV
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                  Winemaker
                  The Vallformosa family have been making Cavas in the Penedes region of eastern Spain for over 140 years and are now in their fifth generation of wine growers. Penedes is an ancient viticultural area of Europe known for making sparkling wines using the same method as Champagne, Methode Champenoise, which involves second fermentation in the bottle to create the fizz.
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                  Taste
                  This is a fruit driven sparkling wine, packed full of apples and pears flavours. This wine shows signs of quality winemaking with complex aromas of pastry and nuts, typical of Methode Champenoise.
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                  Matchmaker
                  The palate is round and elegant making this wine perfect as an aperitif or with traditional Spanish cuisine such as paella or cured meats.
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                  Grapes
                  Macabeu, Parellada and Xarel·lo are the most popular and traditional grape varieties for producing Cava. All are native, white, Spanish varietals that when blended give Cava it’s unique, bone dry character.
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                  10.95
                  Adega do Salvador Quinta da Calcada Vinho Verde Reserva 2015
                  Adega do Salvador Quinta da Calcada Vinho Verde Reserva 2015
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                  Winemaker
                  Quinta da Calcada has specialised in the production of fresh and vibrant Vinho Verde for over a century. Vinho Verde puts Portugal in the map for white wine production and this Quinta makes no exception in making this delicious wine with a slight spritz! Their Vinho Verde is an impeccable example of what this region has to offer: fresh, modern, delicious wine with character that’s distinctly unique to this region.
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                  Taste
                  This region is greatly influenced by the Atlantic sea, which provides an exceptional character to the wine, which you can’t find anywhere else in the world. Bright yellow in colour with a burst of citrus aromas on the note. This is a bone dry Vinho Verde with a mineral backbone that creates an awesome freshness enhanced by the slight spritz at the end that tingles your tongue. There’s some Albariño in the blend providing weight and persistence, this is a great foodie wine.
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                  Matchmaker
                  Vinho Verde finds its soul mate with all types of fish dishes. It also pairs beautifully with roast pork and salsa verde dressing.
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                  Grape
                  Alvarinho is a native white grape variety grown in the north of Portugal, which is called Albarino in Spain. This is a light white grape with natural bright acidity. It is characterized by citrus and stone fruit flavours and floral aromas.
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                  10.95
                  Chateau Toutigeac Grande Reserve Bordeaux Rouge AOC 2014
                  Chateau Toutigeac Grande Reserve Bordeaux Rouge AOC 2014
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                  Winemaker
                  Château Toutigeac is located on a hill at the very heart of the Entre-Deux- Mers, Bordeaux, in its most hilly and picturesque part, sometimes described as a little Tuscany. Five generations of the same family have made wines here using organic principles.
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                  Taste
                  Their Grande Reserve 2014 is a blend of 50% Merlot, 35% Cabernet Franc and 15% Cabernet Sauvignon that is aged in oak barrels for up to 8 months. This short stay in oak helps to smooth out the tannins and bring the various components together, while adding notes of vanilla and black pepper. Dark fruits and aromatic cedar wood are embraced in this harmonious style of Bordeaux. The silky tannins give this a powerful structure that makes it very food friendly. This is a charming wine that can be aged for several years.
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                  Matchmaker
                  This isn’t an overpowering claret so lighter meat such as veal is the perfect partner.
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                  Grapes
                  The dark blue Merlot grape is famous for the role it plays in the great blends of Bordeaux, adding body and softness to its sterner friends, Cabernet Sauvignon and Petit Verdot. It is full-bodied with fruit character of rich dark plums and impressive structure. Cabernet Franc injects finesse and perfume to the blend as the more feminine component.
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                  13.95
                  Domaine de Landreau Anthonin Dubreuil Crémant de Loire Brut NV
                  Domaine de Landreau Anthonin Dubreuil Crémant de Loire Brut NV
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                  Winemaker
                  Domaine de Landreau’s Crémant is made in the same way as Champagne and so is always great value for money. Packed full of flavours of apples and pears, this delicate sparkling is perfect as an aperitif. Situated in the heart of the Coteaux du Layon, Domaine de Landreau are specialists in the regional wines of the Loire valley. With four generations of experience, they are closely bonded with the land on which they work. Vines are grown on soil that best suits each variety so that each wine is full of individual character and definition. Hand-harvesting and careful sorting ensure only the best quality grapes are chosen, while slow fermentations help to bring out the unique expression of each wine. These are then treated to longer than average ageing time in the family cellars, adding polish to the already stunning wines.
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                  Taste
                  Packed full of flavours of apples and pears, this wine is uncomplicated and although dry and crisp it has plenty of vibrant grapey flavours. A wine fit for any occasion, adding something extra special to a celebration. This wine is a high-quality and well balanced delight.
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                  Matchmaker
                  Perfect with a light starter such as smoked salmon. Cremant is also a favourite with fish and chips amongst the Perfect Cellar team as the fresh acidity cuts through the batter to pair exquisitely with the delicate fish!
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                  Grapes
                  There are a multitude of red and white grape varieties grown along the Loire including Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, and Cabernet Franc. This Cremant is made with a local variety to the Coteaux du Layon called Grolleau, meaning "crow" and is said to reflect the deep black berries of the Grolleau vine. Grolleau produces light bodied wines with noticeably bright acidity, perfect for the production of Cremant de Loire.
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                  10.95
                  Ormarine Le Jardin de la Mer 2015
                  Ormarine Le Jardin de la Mer 2015
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                  Winemaker
                  Ormarine is an award-winning winery from the South of France. It neighbours the celebrated village of Pinet, in a hamlet called Cote du Thau. Le Jardin de la Mer is the name given to the Thau lagoon, an area famous for its seafood cuisine. This area of the Languedoc has enjoyed huge commercial success for its production of the native white grape, Picpoul and remains the beating heart of this estate.
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                  Taste
                  This white blend is beautifully clear in the glass with green tints, the nose is elegant with notes of acacia flowers and lime. A fresh and balanced palate with an abundance of energetic pink grapefruit that lingers. This is a youthful white wine designed to refresh wine drinkers in the south of France from the day’s heat.
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                  Matchmaker
                  This wine was designed for seafood and will pair beautifully with sushi.
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                  Grapes
                  Picpoul is a white grape variety grown in the south of France. It has grown in popularity in recent years due to its simple citrus flavour and fresh acidity, making it the perfect summertime wine. Sauvignon blanc is an aromatic variety is easy to appreciate due to the fruit burst it delivers with every swig, along with its signature character of crisp, elegant and refreshing. From green and grassy citrus flavours in France to robust tropical bursts in warmer climates. When blended, these white grapes create floral, vibrant whites that are intended to be enjoyed young and chilled.
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                  10.95
                  Ormarine Le Jardin de la Mer 2015
                  Vina Falernia Number 1 Estate Shiraz Gran Reserva 2012
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                  Winemaker
                  Vina Falernias wines are made by the renowned Italian winemaker Giorgio Flessati. This multi-award winning range represents some extraordinary feats of wine making in the desert that is the Elqui valley, 500km north of Santiago. Although cacti grow among the vines the altitude helps to retain vital freshness, producing a fruity and aromatic style with a delightfully refreshing crisp acidity.
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                  Taste
                  On the nose you’ll pick up a peppery character, which is classic to the Shiraz variety. This leads into rich dark chocolate and dark plummy fruit, such as blackcurrant and damsons. A tremendous finish of sweet spices that will leave you wanting more!
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                  Matchmaker
                  This wine was made for food. Shiraz finds its perfect partner in lamb. Slow roast a leg of lamb for as long as your patience allows and prepare yourself for a decadent experience! Alternatively, try an English classic, bangers and mash, which works very well with the intensity and body of this wine.
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                  Grape
                  The red grape Shiraz originates from France where it is alternatively known as Syrah. This grape thrives in warm climates such as the Elqui Valley. Here, Shiraz achieves a seductive, elegant character where the wines only get better with age, developing earthy, leathery notes and smooth, complex character.
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                  10.95
                  Ormarine Le Jardin de la Mer 2015
                  LLopart Brut Reserva 2014
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                  Winemaker
                  For centuries the Llopart family has cultivated traditional produce of the Mediterranean including grapes, wheat and olives. To this day the land remains harmonious with the family now focusing on premium Cava production. One of the first Cava Brut Nature made in Spain and now considered a great classic.
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                  Taste
                  Grapes harvested by hand at the Estate. The geological composition of the land expresses itself in our cava Attractive bright pale gold color. Fine and constant bubbles. Clean aroma which is dominated by the primary aromas of the fruit. Lingering acidity with hints of white fruits.
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                  Matchmaker
                  Enjoy it matching it with aperitif, celebrations and desserts
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                  Grape
                  Macabeu, Parellada and Xarel·lo are the most popular and traditional grape varieties for producing Cava. All are native, white, Spanish varietals that when blended give Cava it’s unique, bone dry character.
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                  10.95
                  Ormarine Le Jardin de la Mer 2015
                  Château Beauvillage 2012
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                  Winemaker
                  Château Beauvillage is a rich an satisfying Cabernet dominant Claret created from the vines situated between the illustrious towns of Pauillac and Saint-Estèphe. Located on the left bank of the Gironde estuary, between St Julien and Margaux, this region is producing bold and perfumed styles of Bordeaux from gravel soils.
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                  Taste
                  Château Beauvillage has been cultivated by the Jean family for generations, farmed from vines located between the illustrious towns of Pauillac and Saint-Estèphe. A truly delicious wine with a succulent blackcurrant core and velvety texture. Complexity comes in the way of a touch of creaminess and a pepper finish, ably carried by fine tannins that ensure this is highly enjoyable with or without food.
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                  Matchmaker
                  Great on it's own, but will partner well with hearty meat dishes.
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                  Grape
                  Cabernet Sauvignon is the love child of Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc with noticeable qualities of both parents. It's a vital component in the classic Bordeaux blend with brambly rugged character, and since the 1980's has made its way to the New World, such as California’s Napa Valley & Australia’s Margaret River, delivering signature menthol notes.
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                  10.95
                  Ormarine Le Jardin de la Mer 2015
                  Tentimenti Ca'Bianca Gavi
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                  Winemaker
                  Tentimenti Ca'Bianca are a celebrated, innovative winery based in the Piedmont region of northern Italy. Tentimenti injects a passion as well as an eagerness to embrace technology to help them make the best wines possible. Their Gavi is a youthful, fresh interpretation of the region. Piedmont, meaning ‘foot of the mountain’ is an ancient wine growing area famous for producing fruity, fragrant white wines from the Cortese variety. These wines have enjoyed global success as this cool region, in shadow of the Alps, produces wines unlike anywhere else in the world.
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                  Taste
                  Aromas of honeysuckle, lilac, citrus and pear circulate the glass. The palate is equally elegant with perfumed white blossom and delicate peach flavours. The finish is refreshingly dry.
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                  Matchmaker
                  This wine needs something equally fresh. Try pairing with light fish dishes such as smoked salmon or summer salads
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                  Grape
                  Cortese is the principle white grape variety that makes Gavi wines. This grape is native to Northern Italy and makes wines that are popular around the world due to their fresh and elegant character.
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